Table of Contents
Wildlife Pharmaceuticals specialises in the local and international distribution of scheduled veterinary medicines
Each ml contains: Etorphine HCl 9,8 mg
Preservative: Chlorocresol 0,1 % m/v
CATEGORY AND CLASS OF MEDICINE
PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
CAPTIVON 98 is indicated for reversible narcosis with analgesia in wildlife animals.
The safety of CAPTIVON 98 in pregnant and lactating wildlife animals has not been established. There is a risk of respiratory depression in the newborn if CAPTIVON 98 is given to a parturient animal. Rodent studies have shown that etorphine readily crosses the placental barrier. Etorphine administered in pregnant rats results in respiratory depression in the mother and depressed oxygen uptake in the newborn rats that is directly proportional to the maternal dose.
CAPTIVON 98 residue studies have not been conducted in wildlife animals and consequently, human and predator consumption of carcasses from animals treated with CAPTIVON 98 is not advisable.
DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE
CAPTIVON 98 dosing is dependent on species, body mass and the condition of the wildlife animal being treated and doses should be adjusted accordingly. Administration by intravenous or intramuscular injection is recommended. Refer to the table for CAPTIVON 98 dosing.
The effects of CAPTIVON 98 may be reversed by administering ACTIVON at a ratio of 2-3 mg of ACTIVON for every 1 mg of CAPTIVON 98 used.
SIDE EFFECTS AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR USE
The most serious adverse effect following CAPTIVON 98 administration is respiratory depression, usually observed within the first five minutes after administration. CAPTIVON 98 should be reversed as soon as possible in cases of severe respiratory depression and animals should not remain immobilized for longer than necessary to avoid complications. The use of CAPTIVON 98 in elderly, diseased, emaciated and highly stressed animals carries a greater degree of risk and precautionary measures should be taken, including maintenance of airways and prevention of hyperthermia.
In equids and rhino, CAPTIVON 98 may result in a dramatic rise in blood pressure, tachycardia, hyperpyrexia and pronounced muscle tremors. Administration in rhino may lead to hypoventilation, hypoxaemia and metabolic acidosis. Significant hypertension due to an increase in total peripheral resistance, and moderate to severe bradycardia has been reported in ungulate species. Excitement, increased muscle tone and resulting hyperthermia is particularly common in ungulates. Passive regurgitation of rumen contents is common and ruminants should be kept in sternal recumbency with heads lifted and tilted downwards to prevent aspiration pneumonia. Under-dosing may cause hyper-excitability, hyperventilation and severe alkalosis.
Accidental exposure to CAPTIVON 98 could have serious effects on humans due to the high concentration of the medicine. The following precautions should be taken by veterinarians when using CAPTIVON 98:
- Do not work with CAPTIVON 98 unaccompanied.
- Wear gloves when handling CAPTIVON 98. Ensure water or an appropriate irrigation solution is available to treat accidental exposure of the skin or eyes. Eye protection should be utilised if there is a risk of CAPTIVON 98 splashing into the eyes.
- Ensure that the antidote (naloxone), and a needle and syringe for administration of the antidote are readily available. An assistant capable of administering the antidote to humans should be present at all times and should be fully briefed on the procedure to follow in the event of accidental exposure to CAPTIVON 98.
- Once the required dose of CAPTIVON 98 has been withdrawn from the vial, the needle should be immediately discarded into a closed container or sharps bin.
- CAPTIVON 98 should not be used in blowpipes or similar devices where the medicine solution is pressurized.
- The lethal CAPTIVON 98 dose in humans is estimated to be between 30-120 μg. Symptoms of toxicity in humans include dizziness, nausea, pinpoint pupils, respiratory depression, hypotension, loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest.
- In the event of accidental topical exposure of the skin or eyes, wash the affected area immediately with copious amounts of water to prevent absorption. Monitor for symptoms of toxicity.
- Should accidental injection occur, seek medical attention immediately. Inject 0,8-1,2 mg naloxone intramuscularly or intravenously and repeat at 2-3 minute intervals until symptoms are reversed. Monitor airway and ventilation and initiate CPR as necessary until medical help arrives.
KNOWN SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSAGE AND PARTICULARS OF ITS TREATMENT
CAPTIVON 98 toxicity in wildlife animals results in respiratory depression and cardiac suppression. Primates, hippopotamus and rhinos are particularly sensitive to CAPTIVON 98. An overdose can be treated with ACTIVON (diprenorphine HCl) and with analeptics such as doxapram hydrochloride. Oxygen supplementation is recommended in cases of severe respiratory depression. Butorphanol may be used to partially reverse respiratory depression and to lighten the plane of anaesthesia of large species such as rhino. In the latter case, the animals may be walked under sedation onto vehicles for transport.
A clear, colourless solution free from visible particulate matter.
CAPTIVON 98 is supplied in a 10 ml amber vial (filled to 5 ml) with a grey stopper and a red aluminium or colourless plastic cap.
Store at or below 25 °C.
Protect from light.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN AND UNINFORMED PERSONS.
CAPTIVON 98: 93/1.3.1/10
NAME AND BUSINESS ADDRESS OF HOLDER OF CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION
Wildlife Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd. 38 Wilkens Street, Rocky Drift, White River,1240, South Africa.
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